|Title||Anxiety and Type 1 Diabetes Management: Guardian and Child Report in a Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Samuels S, Menand EV, Mauer EA, Hernandez S, Terekhova D, Mathews TL, Albright AA, Antal Z, Kanellopoulos D|
|Date Published||2020 May - Jun|
|Keywords||Adolescent, Adult, Anxiety, Child, Child, Preschool, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1, Female, Humans, Legal Guardians, Male, Pilot Projects, Quality of Life, Self Report, Surveys and Questionnaires, Treatment Adherence and Compliance, Young Adult|
BACKGROUND: Childhood anxiety prevents optimal diabetes management yet may be underrecognized by guardians.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate associations among anxiety, diabetes treatment adherence, and diabetes symptom control through child and guardian report.
METHODS: Cross-sectional pilot study surveying a convenience sample of children (ages 2-21) in a pediatric endocrinology clinic. Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition 2, Self-Care Inventory Report, and Pediatric Quality of Life measured anxiety, diabetes treatment adherence, and diabetes symptom control. Analyses were performed with Spearman correlations.
RESULTS: Prevalence of anxiety and related behaviors was higher when reported by children (13% and 24%) vs. guardians (5% and 13%). Child-reported anxiety was associated with worse symptom control in all ages (Pediatric Quality of Life [rs = -0.55, P < 0.01]) and worse treatment adherence in children aged ≤12 (Self-Care Inventory Report [rho = -0.601, P = 0.023]). Guardian-reported anxiety was associated with worse symptom control (Peds QL [rs = -0.38, P = 0.02]). Child- and guardian-reported anxiety were positively correlated (rho = 0.426, P = 0.017)-particularly for children aged >12 (rho = 0.686, P = 0.003)-although not significantly for children ≤ 12 (rho = 0.201, P = 0.473).
CONCLUSION: Anxiety in children with type 1 diabetes varies with the domain of diabetes management (treatment adherence vs. symptom control) and reporting source (child vs. guardian). Children aged ≤12 exhibited a stronger relationship between higher anxiety and worse diabetes management with worse treatment adherence and symptom control in the presence of higher anxiety. Guardians of younger children were less effective at recognizing symptoms. Challenges identifying anxiety and its detrimental effects on diabetes management suggest routine screening of anxiety in pediatric endocrinology clinics is especially salient.
|Grant List||UL1 TR002384 / TR / NCATS NIH HHS / United States|